Al fin estoy leyendo a Jung!

Jung, C.G. / The Spirit in Man, Art and Literature / Ark Paperbacks, 1966

Hace muchos años que quería a comenzar a leer los libros de Jung que la Flaca comenzó a leer hace como 30 años! Hasta ahora encontré las ganas de hacerlo y ha sido un gusto enorme comenzar por este libro en que se relacionan espíritu, arte y literatura.

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Me gustó mucho la estructura del texto que ayuda a elaborar el contenido. Primero Jung junta artículos que ha trabajado sobre Paracelso (el médico que es capaz de ligar la salud del cuerpo con los astros y con la filosofía), Sigmund Freud (con quien trabajó) y Richard Whilhelm (quien trae el I Ching a occidente). Luego dedica un capítulo a la relación entre Psicología Analítica y Poesía, entre Psicología y Literatura. Cierra el texto analizando el Ulises (de Joyce) y Picasso.

Encontré como limitante enorme el que salvo algunas excepciones pequeñitas, yo no he leído ninguno de los autores o los temas mencionados. El libro es una buena invitación a trabajar estos y otros autores que aparecen reseñados tales como Dante (y la Divina Comedia), Nietzsche, Goethe (y el Fausto). Llama a leer Ulises y a mirar de una manera diferente a Picasso y a otros pintores.

Me gustó cómo mira la relación del médico Paracelso con el conocimiento especial que debe tener cualquier médico con la “luz de la naturaleza”. Nacido en 1493, fue capaz de ligar a los médicos clásicos, originarios de la medicina, con diversas fuentes de conocimiento empírico y la relación con diversos campos y con la Alquimia (entendida como procedimiento filosófico). Liga la salud con la astrología y la astronomía. Sus contemporáneos lo consideraron el Lutero de la medicina, una de las figuras importantes del Renacimiento.

En el capítulo sobre Freud, Jung lanza abiertamente sus críticas a los métodos de Freud. Pero también nos llama la atención sobre la importancia de ubicar a Freud en su contexto histórico específico del materialismo científico del siglo XIX: “It is an instrument to be used by a doctor, and it is dangerous or destructive, or at best ineffective, when applied to the natural expressions of life and its needs”. 47

Uno de los capítulos que más me gustó es el dedicado a la memoria de Richard Wilhelm. Yo tenía referencias de él, pero no lo ligaba con tanta fuerza al I Ching, a la China y a la ciencia desarrollada en ése país desde hace miles de años. Es un autor para trabajar bien y con juicio:

“… it is Wilhelm who brings new light from the East. This was the cultural task to which he felt himself called, recognizing how much  the East had to offer in our spiritual need”. 58

“The spirit of Europe is not helped merely  by new sensations or a titillation of the nerves. What it has taken China thousands of years to build cannot be acquired by theft”. 58

“Nothing can be sacrificed for ever. Everything returns later in changed form, and when once a great sacrifice has been made, the sacrificed thing when it returns must meet with a healthy and resistant body that can take the shock”. 62

Del capítulo de relación con la poesía hay muchos aspectos poderosos. Uno de los que más me gustó es la relación que tiene la creación artística con los arquetipos y con la memoria/inconsciente colectivo.  Es el aspecto supra-personal. Cómo entender el aspecto supra-personal nuestro, latinoamericano, colombiano? “The plant is not a mere product of the soil; it is  a living, self-contained process which in essence has nothing to do with the character of the soil”.

Cómo se acciona la conexión con los arquetipos desde la perspectiva del artista, cualquiera que sea el arte?

“A special ability demands a greater expenditure of energy, which must necessarily leave a deficit on some other side of life”.103

Toca ver cómo seguir trabajando con juicio:

  • C.G. Jung
  • Richard Wilhelm
  • Dante – Divina Comedia
  • Nietzsche y la experiencia dionisíaca
  • Goethe – El Fausto
  • Joyce – leer el Ulysses y volver a leer el capítulo de este libro!
  • Picasso y los símbolos que utiliza

Chía, 28 de diciembre de 2016

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What did you Catch?

The Old Man and the Sea by Ernest Hemingway

The Old Man and the Sea
by Ernest Hemingway

18681755

Constantino Casasbuenas‘s review

Dec 17, 2016  ·  edit
Read from December 15 to 17, 2016


It was great getting advice from Mario about reading this book. I started to read it two days ago and I couldn’t stop. Though this is a short book, it pulled me hard because of three main reasons:

1. It is very well written.
2. It brought to mind my discovery of the sea – and of fishing – when I was just a boy, and,
3. It gave me a good grasp about my present age, when elder people need my support.

Hemingway wrote this short book towards the end of his career as a writer, just before he won the Nobel price, after living in Cuba from 1939 until 1941. His life in the Caribbean gave him the sense of being an old fisherman in the region, when your are alone, on your own and most of the world means his relations with the sea and with the young boy who takes care of him.

When I was reading the book, in reality I was like rowing or sailing or fishing in Puerto Obaldía, in Urabá, when I was 7 years old. I could remember the feeling of trowing the nylon with the bait, and the precious feeling that you get in your fingers when you know that a fish is about to eat the bait. I could remember when my brother Javier fished a beautiful 12 kg Jurel. And I could remember well what happened when you fished a bigger fish that could be easily eaten by the sharks! You couldn´t see the sharks, but just the fish head that was left by the sharks.

Many parts of the book gave me the feeling that I have now, when I meet older people who feel (it’s my assessment) like the old fisherman: “The ocean is very big and a skiff is small and hard to see,” the old man said. He noticed how pleasant it was to have someone to talk to instead of speaking only to himself and to the sea. “I missed you,” he said. “What did you catch?”35

The most interesting part was to see that the stories told by the old man were really interesting and important for the young boy, and it was the young boy who really took care of the old fisherman.

The last lines are real magic. After having caught the biggest fish in his live, after having killed many sharks who ate the valuable fish, he survived and after coming back to his room, he considered that the most important thing is to go to sleep: “Up the road, in his shack, the old man was sleeping again. He was still sleeping on his face and the boy was sitting by him watching him. The old man was dreaming about the lions”.36

Some of the quotes which I loved follow now:

“I would like to go. If I cannot fish with you. I would like to serve in some way.”2

“Thank you,” the old man said. He was too simple to wonder when he had attained humility. But he [13] knew he had attained it and he knew it was not disgraceful and it carried no loss of true pride.2

“Have faith in the Yankees my son. Think of the great DiMaggio.”3

“Keep the blanket around you,” the boy said. “You’ll not fish without eating while I’m alive.”4

I must have water here for him, the boy thought, and soap and a good towel. Why am I so thoughtless? I must get him another shirt and a jacket for the winter and some sort of shoes and another blanket.5

“Que Va,” the boy said. “There are many good fishermen and some great ones. But there is only you.”5

But the old man always thought of her as feminine and as something that gave or withheld great favours, and if she did wild or wicked things it was because she could not help them. The moon affects her as it does a woman, he thought.7

No one should be alone in their old age, he thought. But it is unavoidable. I must remember to eat the tuna before he spoils in order to keep strong. Remember, no matter how little you want to, that you must eat him in the morning. Remember, he said to himself.12

Aloud he said, “I wish I had the boy.” [51] But you haven’t got the boy, he thought. You have only yourself and you had better work back to the last line now, in the dark or not in the dark, and cut it away and hook up the two reserve coils.14

Then the negro, after the rum, would try for a tremendous [69] effort and once he had the old man, who was not an old man then but was Santiago El Campeon, nearly three inches off balance. But the old man had raised his hand up to dead even again.19

The old man looked carefully in the glimpse of vision that he had. Then he took two turns of the harpoon [94] line around the bitt in the bow and hid his head on his hands. “Keep my head dear,” he said against the wood of the bow. “I am a tired old man. But I have killed this fish which is my brother and now I must do the slave work.”26

“Get to work, old man,” he said. He took a very [95] small drink of the water. “There is very much slave work to be done now that the fight is over.”27

Besides, he thought, everything kills everything else in some way. Fishing kills me exactly as it keeps me alive. The boy keeps me alive, he thought. I must not deceive myself too much.30

“The ocean is very big and a skiff is small and hard to see,” the old man said. He noticed how pleasant it was to have someone to talk to instead of speaking only to himself and to the sea. “I missed you,” he said. “What did you catch?”35

De la huerta a tu mesa

Recibamos bien la Navidad y el 2017 con una bella ancheta!

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La Costanza, sector Juntas, vereda La Balsa, Chía, Cundinamarca.
Tel. 318 3752151
Hortiaromachiguata@gmail.com

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Canastos producidos en junco en Fómeque, Cundinamarca.
Tel. 320 8131953
Laura Castiblanco

En fotos Jessica Juliana Wilches Urrego

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Ancheta canasto Redondo

1 kg de arroz

Berenjenas en aceite oliva

1 frco ají mujeres Sikuani

1 Zuchini verde

1 Zuchini amarillo

1 rocoto rojo o amarillo

6 curubas frescas

6 huevos campesinos

1 lechuga o espinaca

1 manojo de rúgula

Caja champiñones u orellanas

                                                                    $ 49,000

Ancheta en canasto Ovalado

1 kg de arroz

Berenjenas en aceite oliva

1 frasco ají mujeres Sikuani

1 Zuchini verde

1 Zuchini amarillo

1 rocoto rojo o amarillo

5 curubas frescas

5 huevos campesinos

2 remolachas

1 lechuga

1 manojo de rúgula

Caja champiñones u orellanas

                                                                                      $ 46,300

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Ancheta en canasto Cuadrado

1 lb de arroz

Berenjenas en aceite oliva

1 frasco ají mujeres Sikuani

1 Zuchini verde

1 Zuchini amarillo

1 rocoto rojo o amarillo

1 lechuga

Caja champiñones u orellanas

                                                                         $ 46,300

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Huevos Campesinos en canasto ovalado pequeño

14 huevos   $10,500

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Arma tu propia ancheta

Acelga  400 gr                                2,000

Ají Nonoji frasco                          10,000

Arroz 1 kg                                        4,000

Arroz 1 lb                                         2,000

Berenjenas frasco                        15,000

Champiñones paq                         3,000

Curubas (6)                                     1,500

Espinaca – atado                           1,000

Huevo campesino                             500

Kale 100gr                                       1,500

Laurel seco    50gr                         2,000

Lechuga morada                            1,000

Lechuga verde                                1,000

Orégano d-hidratado 25gr          2,000

Orégano fresco                              1,000

Orellanas paquete                        3,000

Remolacha 500 gr                           800

Rocoto (1)                                          500

Romero – 100gr fresco               1,000

Rúgula 1 paquete                          1,000

Sábila penca a                                  500

6 Tomates de árbol                      1,500

Yerbabuena 100 gr.                     1,000

Zuchini                                          1,000

Nota importante: cada canasto tiene su valor. Puedes pedir los productos sin el canasto y los enviaremos en un bello talego ecológico!

Colombia in the United Kingdom

When I first met Juan Manuel Santos, the two of us were about 5 (or 4?) years old and the two of us were attending the Instituto Zamora, some kind of nursery (a story to tell latter) near Chapinero. It was 1955 and we were not aware that the whole country was starting its national conflict, resulting in more than 220 thousand people killed and that it would take more than fifty years to start its ending and to go into a Peace Process that will take around 10 years from now. At that time he was not aware that he would become president of Colombia in 2010. We were not aware that our family would live in the United Kingdom for 15 years, that we would become British citizens and that I would meet Juan Manuel Santos again in 2012.

When we met for the second time, obviously I knew who he was. He knew also who I was and when we met, we had a big smile and a friendly shake of hands. At that moment I was part of an NGO coalition, trying to evaluate how the Colombian government was dealing with human rights defence. Our meeting happened at the Foreign Commonwealth Office, just after he had met the PM David Cameron. It became evident to us that the Colombian government was doing its best to defend human rights and that it was following a plan negotiated with the British government, the Private Sector and the UN. At this moment in 2012 he would not be aware that the agreement with the FARC would happen in 2016 and that he would get the Nobel Peace Prize because of agreeing peace with the FARC.

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I am not watching TV anymore. This morning it was very special to watch the live programme broadcasted by Colombian TV, showing Queen Elizabeth II welcoming president Santos. It was great to see that the London Eye and one of the most important avenues leading to Buckingham Palace were covered with the Colombian and the British flags. Later today, he spoke to the Parliament and he met the PM Theresa May.

It has been astonishing to listen to the Colombian radio and to read newspapers in which some of the journalists consider this visit to be an ordinary one, with no relevance for Colombia. Lot of comments and jokes made by the journalists reflect that people don’t understand the relevance of meeting the British leaders and the companies and investors. Though the president is visiting the Queen, my impression is that the real visitor is the Colombian Peace Process in which negotiators from the Government and from FARC demonstrated that they learned from the Northern Ireland peace process, which took a bit longer than ten years to negotiate.

While we lived in the UK for close to 15 years, I was trying to see what was the meaning of being Colombian in a multi-racial and multi-cultured country as it has been the UK since its beginning. What was the meaning of speaking Colombian Spanish in a city in which more than 210 languages are spoken regularly?

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A significant Colombian presence in London starts with ex-president Alfonso López Pumarejo passing away in London in 1959. Later, during the following 4 decades, while the violence in Colombia escalated, more than 90 thousand Colombians arrived as political refugees. They are Londoners and many of them live around Elephant and Castle. Though many of them don’t speak English yet, they keep cooking almojábanas, arepaehuevo, pan de bono and good chocolate. They make tamales and black pudding and they serve the dishes with plantain leave.

Colombians became relevant in the leadership of the International Coffee Organisation, where Juan Manuel Santos was an important leader during 1970-1980. During the next years, when the global coffee price had to be negotiated, the ICO leader was Néstor Osorio, who is the present Colombian ambassador.

Art gave us other ways to be present.

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It was quite interesting for me to attend policy meetings on the trade agreements held near the Exchange Square and regularly see details of Fernando Botero’s fat muse observing (and smiling) what was happening with the Sterling Pound and the indexes reflecting negotiations with all currencies. It was surprising for us to see that his exhibitions on Abu-Ghraib didn’t achieve any type of relevant comment from art experts. It was quite different for us to appreciate Shibboleth, built by Doris Salcedo in the Tate Gallery. It was in 2009 when we watched Shibboleth (a growing and scaring flaw network representing racism and the fear on migrants) intervening in the floor of the Tate Gallery. Though it deals with racism, for me it was a reflection of the Colombian conflict, with Colombian reality (fracturing the ground in so many different directions) running in parallel (without meeting it!) with the history of modernity and of human rights.

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My hope is that Juan Manuel Santos visit to the UK will represent the moment when Colombians met modernity, the value of human rights for all, the fight against inequality and the respect of women’s rights. I hope that the president’s visit to London means that the names of people killed or disappeared during the conflict that were presented by Doris Salcedo in Bogota’s central plaza few weeks ago, will be respected and will take Colombia away from any internal armed conflict forever.

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VII Simposio de Agro-negocios Universidad de La Salle, 27 de octubre de 2016

Fue una buena experiencia responder a la invitación que nos transmitió nuestra profesora del SENA, Diana Paola para participar en el VII Simposio de Agronegocios, realizado en la Universidad de La Salle. Junto con los delegados de HortiAroma Chiguata, llegaron otros 300 participantes.

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El Vice-rector de la Universidad de la Salle indicó sobre el interés nacional e internacional que hay sobre el campo colombiano y le dio atención especial al índice de competitividad desarrollado por la Universidad de Harvard y que se aplicó a 140 países. En el ámbito general, Colombia quedó en la posición 61, que está relativamente bien. En algunos sectores nuestra calificación no fue tan buena: instituciones (114), costos del terrorismo (136), recursos del Estado (131), los políticos (131), y, costos de política agrícola (132).  Teniendo presente que el conflicto armado ha tocado unos 400 municipios, el proceso de paz y las reformas deberían traer beneficios importantes. Ver http://reports.weforum.org/global-competitiveness-report-2015-2016/

El Dr. Aguilar se refirió a la importancia de las Alianzas Productivas para el desarrollo territorial, que se han desarrollado en unos 20 países (Colombia entre ellos) en los últimos 15 años. Hay un proceso de acompañamiento integral y el sistema ha generado su propio banco. Será importante conseguir la documentación para ver posibilidad de utilizar herramientas que están disponibles. El correo electrónico del expositor es nelson.aguilar@minagricultura.gov.co

El Dr. Aguirre hizo su presentación sobre Augura, en Urabá, concentrada totalmente en la producción y comercialización del banano. Es interesante ver que dentro de Augura se encuentran trabajando asociadamente los productores y los comercializadores. Interesante ver que es Colombia el país que mejor salarios ofrece a los trabajadores. Me pareció interesante ver cómo parte importante del trabajo se proyecta en la dimensión social, y del conjunto de labores han surgido héroes y heroínas como Caterine Ibarguen, Cuadrado… y un largo etc. deportivo.

Rosalba Frías  se refirió al agronegocio como opción para alcanzar la vida querida, y compartió resultados de una investigación que viene realizando por más de 3 años  con la Fundación Susyusama (que trabaja con el IMCA). Fue muy rico ver que se refería a Nariño, al Cauca y al Ecuador, y que muchos de los elementos abordados se refieren a los mismos nuestros de aquí de Chía. Fue interesante ver cómo la iniciativa de grupos de ahorro ha sido promovida por las mujeres. Me pareció central ver el rol que juega el concepto de Vida Querida y del Buen Vivir.

Luego del almuerzo la Señora Rivera presentó sobre Marviva. Aunque se refería al mar, tenía elementos que son poderosos para nuestro trabajo. Se refirió a la importancia de crear cadenas de valor que sean socialmente responsables y se refirió en detalle a dos de ellas que ofrecen muchos aprendizajes: (a) la cadena que se origina por los pescadores en Bahía Solano, el pescado es conservado por Redefrío, y es consumido por los clientes del WOK. Lleva desarrollándose 7 años y logra relacionar de manera impresionante al cliente del Wok que come pescado y al pescador de Bahía Solano! (b) la cadena de los pescadores de Nuquí, cuyo pescado es conservado por Fishmare y es consumido por los clientes de Takami. Esta cadena ha logrado desarrollar estándares de cumplimiento

Edward Baquero presentó sobre el trabajo de transformación hecho por Fedecacao. Fue un descubrimiento ver que somos productores ancestrales y que se produce en todo el país. Chévere ver que hay concentración del mejor cacao en Santander y Arauca, y que hemos sido seleccionados como los mejores productores  en las ferias de París, en 2010, 2011 y 2015. Es curioso enterarse que fuimos importadores de cacao y que hoy somos exportadores de cacao de la mejor calidad. En la parte final la presentación se centró en las BPA y en el rol que jugaban actualmente víctimas y victimarios dentro de procesos exitosos.

El Dr. Ulloa presentó el trabajo de Asohofrucol, y dio atención a los factores fundamentales para tener éxito en el sector. Se refirió a frutas y verduras, muchas de ellas como las que nosotros trabajamos. Será importante para nosotros contactarlos y ver cómo logramos postularnos para 2017, de modo que tengamos acceso a la oferta de recursos institucionales. Será importante que estudiemos el Plan Nacional de Fomento Hortifrutícola 2012-2022. Ver: http://www.asohofrucol.com.co/archivos/biblioteca/biblioteca_204_Dr.%20Alvaro%20Ernesto%20Palacio%20Pelaez.pdf

La Doctora Patricia Bejarano compartió una rica presentación sobre el corredor Chingaza-Sumapaz – Guerrero – Guacheneque. Fue muy impresionante ver como la Sabana de Bogota y alrededores somos el 25 % de la población colombiana, ocupamos el 1% del territorio nacional y nos estamos tomando el agua de los páramos y parte de la de la cuenca del Orinoco.

Jaime Forero / Universidad de la Salle – se concentró en competitividad y producción en los territorios rurales. Con base en casos concretos de empresas gigantescas (Fazenda) y de empresas pequeñas (“Pollos de doña Etelvina”), ambos sectores globalizados, concluye que en ambos se puede ser altamente competitivo y que esta no depende de la gran o pequeña escala, ni de la productividad. Los resultados muestran la alta competitividad (capacidad de establecerse y de expandir en los mercados) del campo colombiano. Los ejemplos muestran que ambas son viables y que hay espacio para todos.

Finalmente, Marlon Vinicius Brisola (de la Universidad de Brasilia) habló sobre territorios rurales competitivos, a partir de la experiencia gigantesca de Brasil. Aunque reconoció la importancia de los 4 sectores (estructural, social, institucional y capital), dió preponderancia a los dos últimos.

Algunas conclusiones:

  1. Me parece que fue importante haber participado desde la perspectiva personal y también desde HortiAroma Chiguata. Será importante ponerle atención a las invitaciones de Paola.
  2. Fue muy rico compartir la experiencia con Teresa y con Fernando, y estoy seguro que desde los cuatro (incluida la profe) podremos compartir aprendizajes.
  3. Todas las presentaciones fueron buenas. Me pareció importante la conversación que tuvimos con Rosalba Frías. Sera bueno que busquemos a Constanza González en Tenjo, pue ella lidera una excelente experiencia de agricultura orgánica.
  4. Todas las presentaciones serán enviadas a los participantes. Una vez que las recibamos podremos compartirlas con los demás socios de HortiAroma Chiguata.
  5. Deberemos elaborar un plan de acción para:
  • Leer texto de competitividad de la Universidad de Harvard y ver puntos claves
  • Desarrollar relación con Constanza Gonzalez/Tenjo
  • Establecer una relación con Asohofrucol
  • Conocer la experiencia de “Pollos de doña Etelvina” o similar y ver la manera de relacionarla con las cadenas realizadas desde Wok y desde Takami.

Telling the names of gods

One River / Davis, Wade / Touchstone, Simon and Schuster, 1998

Telling the names of gods through plants, rivers, hallucinogenics, industries and languages: what a discovery was reading One River! My wife has read it like ten years ago, and it was only now when I got the time and the motivation to read it, mainly because it inspired the Colombian film “El Abrazo de la Serpiente”, nominated for the Oscars, 2016.

The film got no Oscar, but the 529 pages told me a story that we have never learned in schools or in the  universities in Colombia, Ecuador, Perú or Brazil. People in the Latin American cities know very little about the indigenous cultures living in the forests. One River is a story developed in the Amazon basin,  reflecting  the medicinal and spiritual life of indigenous communities. The story is told with key references to foreigners like La Condamine (French, 1743), Alexander von Humboldt (German, 1801), Richard Spruce (British botanist, 1853), Richard Evans Schultes  (American, 1941), Tim Plowman (American, 1974) and Wade Davis (author). Both Tim and Wade were Schultes’  students in Harvard, and the three of them play the central role of telling the many stories articulated by One River, the Amazon.

Though the main driver for Schultes’ visits to Colombia and the Amazon during 1941-1953 had to do with the need for getting rubber seeds for the USA (war and industry needs), the core of the real story has to do with plants, quinine, hallucinogenics like yagé, coca, yá-kee, yoco, curare, peyote, mushrooms, and the spiritual practices of the many tribes in the region. It tells the story of the Muinane, Bora, Witoto, Miraña, Yukuna, Makuna, Jinogogé, Siona, Waorani, Kofan, Ingá, Karijona, Gwanano and Desano communities, living along the Inírida, Guainía, Kuduyarí, Vaupés, Kananarí, Popeyacá, Miritiparaná, Caquetá, Sucumbíos, Naopo, Orinoco, Putumayo, and many other rivers tributaries of the Amazon. The book is telling the story of an important part of Colombia, Ecuador, Perú, Paraguay, Brazil and Bolivia.

The book also reflects how the private sector (important global companies) are interested in using the indigenous ancestral knowledge. It tells us clearly about the interests moved by the Intercontinental Rubber Company, Coca Cola, Parke-Davis, Royal Dutch Shell, Rubber Development Corporation, Rubber Reserve Company, Shell, Shell-Mera, and the United States Rubber Company. It shows how religious influences became important, like the Jesuits or the Capuchin Order during the Colony, or the Summer Institute of Linguistics or the Wycliffe Bible Translators in modern times.  They played the role of articulating belief and interests  between the visitors (companies) and the indigenous communities, who were not represented by the governments.

All these peoples, all these languages,  have developed a deep communication with the plants, with the rivers and the forests. According to Tim Plowman, “when you say the names of the plants, you say the name of the gods”. Their Latin names are like koans of lines of verse. The authors tell about their visit to the Kogi and Ika in the Sierra Nevada, and to many other shamans, and how they cultivate “the art of divination, techniques of breathing and meditation that lift one into trance, prayers that give voice to the inner spirit“.

The book brings together the best botanists in the world, and after many years of an intense experience and long life in the forest, they come to conclude that we do not know how Indians originally made their discoveries.  Spruce, Schultes, Plowman and Davis are some of the best people educated by the most advanced universities at the global level during the last 150 years and they go into the daily practice of learning from ‘locals’ like Adalberto Villafañe, Pedro Juajibioy, Pacho Lopez,  José Antonio Pabón, Gerardo Reichel-Dolmatoff and few research centres.

What I find strange (and to some degree disturbing) is to see that One River is written in English, based on the communication that the Spruce and Schultes managed to develop in the local indigenous languages.  There is no Spanish or Portuguese translation, which means that most of Latin Americans – living now in cities – are missing a fundamental part of their own reality. Because of the strong link that the Amazon keeps with the many variables of Climate Change,  One River is an important book to read.